Heritage Preservation (HP), in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), developed the Heritage Health Index 2004 and the Heritage Health Information 2014 studies – assessments of the nation’s most pressing heritage preservation needs. Heritage Preservation contracted with RMC for the initial ground breaking study and the ten-year follow up study to compile an inventory of the nation’s material heritage. The studies entailed random stratified sampling of holding institutions, conducting online and mail surveys for more than 12,000 museums, libraries, historical societies, scientific organizations, and archive collections to gather data on the extent and condition of heritage-related materials across the country. RMC partnered with HP and IMLS to create a justification package for the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval prior to any data collection. In addition to study descriptions and methods, the package included a 2014 follow-up study to assess non-response bias. Data analyses included projections to the national level on the characteristics of U.S. collecting institutions; the conditions and environments in which collections are stored, emergency planning for and security of collections; and issues of intellectual control and the assessment of holdings.